An M. A. C. Legacy, Part 3: Mary Crocker

16 04 2018

 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

America entered into World War I on April 6, 1917 and put out the call for young men to join in the fight.  Michigan Agricultural College, later to be known as Michigan State University, answered this call with its own students who both served and contributed at home.  Of those many, three in particular stand out: the Crocker siblings. Thanks to a collection housed in the MSU Archives building and the correspondence between these three, Mary, Emory, and Martin, we are given a unique look into the life of M.A.C. students who stayed and went “over there.”

Mary Yearbook PhotoMary Crocker graduated in 1918 from the home economics division and wrote avidly to her brothers while they served in France.  While Mary herself did not serve overseas and stayed home to finish her education at Michigan Agricultural College, she is an interesting participant to consider in this trilogy because of her collection of letters and her scrapbook.  Her contribution to the narrative of her family and the college was a quiet but crucial one.

During her education she enjoyed what is assumed to be an active social life, joining the Omicron Nu society while she was at school and attending dances. She kept some of the letters from young men asking if she would like to join them in attending dances or football games.  These all date from 1916, before America would enter the war, but several of them are from young men who would in the next year enlist in the armed services, such as Ralph Johnson, ‘16, A. Hopperstead, ‘18, and Harold Parks, ‘18.

She also enjoyed a constant relationship with her brothers. She exchanged letters with Emory and Martin when they were home just as she did when they were across the ocean. Emory wrote Mary a note about thanksgiving plans and how he had told Martin that he couldn’t get together later that afternoon. He also complained that when he tried to visit Mary at Howard Terrace, he was snubbed by some of the other women who were living there.  He wrote, “I rapped at the door and no-body came so I stepped inside and pushed the button and then some of those girls wouldn’t come and find out what I wanted.” He tells her that he’ll be going on a hike with Ralph Johnson, but then continues venting his irritation with her dorm mates: “If a girl would be in the same position the worst rough-neck in the dorm would be decent to her. If there is anything makes me sore it is to have some girl try to make a fool out of me. They knew I was there so all they did was giggle and whisper. The dickens with them.”

A few weeks before America entered the war, Mary sent her brother some sweets to enjoy, and as a thank you, she received a silly letter filled with flowery language from the men that were lucky enough to have Emory share with them: “Due to the fact that Emory is the only ‘Sir Galahad’ in this ward, the rest being nonchalant Knights of the Loyal Order of Jilted and Disappointed Youths, we must look upon him as our only benefactor and champion of our worthy and uplifted cause…Humbly and Confectionately yours.” The men who signed were Emory, Harry Weckler, Frank Warner, J. E. Foess, Cosmer LeVeaux, K. C. Beake, and Frank E. Hausherr.  Every man who signed his name would enlist in the war, and Cosmer LeVeaux would lose his life in the fighting.

During the war, writing to soldiers was encouraged in order to keep up morale, and Mary wrote to other soldiers besides her brothers. One was a M. A. C. graduate, Corporal John F. Galloway, ‘17. In a show of dark humor, probably in response to a question Mary posed in a previous letter to him, John begins with, “Dead? No, not just yet. Just busy, that’s all.” He goes on to tell her he’s proud of her and her accomplishments at school and the people he’s run into. He tells her a humorous anecdote about searching men for alcohol when he was on guard duty:

“Another time I was corp. of the guard and our post was at the terminal of the car line. Our duty was to search every one for booze. As they got off the car we would line them up and pat them in the chest, and hips, etc to see if there were any bottle on them. Usually there would be a bunch of women and girls there too, and you ought to have seen the expressions on their faces as we looked the men over. Must have thot [sic] their turn was next but we do not search them. It sure was comical to see them.”

After his story, he continues by talking about the football team and why they were doing poorly that year and about a messy training session he had on the rifle range. Overall, his tone is a lighthearted one written to a friend more than a letter of a soldier writing home.

Not all the letters Mary received were from friends or family.  One was marked “Dear friend” and was signed by a Pvt. Ray E. Dulmage. Having most likely already gotten a letter from Mary, Dulmage wrote back, “I suppose you already know much more than I can tell you about this country since you have two brothers here. I may tell you another side of the story, which may be of interest to you.” He goes into detail about the people and how they live, that “the houses are of stone and cement” and “very old and just as odd looking” with “ no furniture to speak of, no carpets only dirt, dirt, dirt.” He talks about the people, how the women “seem to be degenerate” and “all the men I have seen are the older ones,” which would make sense since it would be assumed that any man capable of fighting was fighting. He noticed the children were able to quickly learn english. Many of them would sing “Hail! Hail! The gang’s all here” when the soldiers would go back to camp, and Dulmage suspected that the children thought it was their national anthem.

The earlier letters Mary collected show a life expected of young college students, which furthers the understanding of how thoroughly the war would change life for the individuals that are introduced through her photos and correspondences. While only a few letters written by Mary were collected, her contribution is crucial and her viewpoint is more of that of the narrator in this saga.  She herself is silent, and her words are read minimally, but she is the vehicle that allows for a deeper understanding through this intimate look at the life of students, soldiers and how the everyday was changed with America’s entry into the war.

Written by Catharine Neely

Sources:

Emory Crocker to Mary Crocker, 21 November 1915, Box FD, Folder 1, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Emory Crocker, et al. to Mary Crocker, 19 March 1917, Box FD, Folder 1, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

John Galloway to Mary Crocker, 1 December 1917, Box FD, Folder 7, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Ray Dulmage to Mary Crocker, 21 June 1918, Box FD, Folder 7, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Mary Crocker Scrapbook, n. d., Scrapbook #244, Boutell Mary Crocker, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Box FD, Folder 14, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Advertisements




An M. A. C. Legacy, Part 2: Martin Crocker

2 04 2018

America entered into World War I on April 6, 1917 and put out the call for young men to join in the fight.  Michigan Agricultural College, later to be known as Michigan State University, answered this call with its own students who both served and contributed at home.  Of those many, three in particular stand out: the Crocker siblings. Thanks to a collection housed in the MSU Archives building and the correspondence between these three, Mary, Emory, and Martin, we are given a unique look into the life of M.A.C. students who stayed and went “over there.”

 

Photo of Martin

Yearbook photo of Emory from 1917 Wolverine

 

Martin Crocker was a member of the M. A. C. class of 1918 and Truck Company no. 6, 23 engineers during World War 1. Both he and his brother Emory left to serve and wrote their sister Mary, who stayed behind to finish school.  Unlike Emory, Mary didn’t have any letters from Martin while he was at school, either because he didn’t write or she didn’t save them. Before joining the armed forces, he was going to school to be a surveyor and asked Mary to look after his drawing tools, but there isn’t much beyond that. He did send her notes while he was in the service that add to the complexity of
understanding military life during this time.

Martin wasn’t exempt from having to deal with disease.  Like any other soldier, he received his inoculations when entering into the army, and he “got all through at 4pm, even had a uniform and a shot in the arm for typhoid and smallpox.” His opinion of military care was tepid at best. He wrote to Mary that “The hospital has two cure alls. If they can see anything on the outside, like a broken arm, they paint iodine on it. If that isn’t the matter they give you a dose of castor oil.” With diseases like measles and the Influenza epidemic running rampant through barracks and civilian homes alike, Martin’s flippant attitude towards healthcare can be understood. But the need for some kind of attempt to curb sickness was constantly apparent.  One night before shipping out to France, after Martin had been enjoying a brief leave to go into Brooklyn, he came back to find out that his entire barracks had been quarantined for diphtheria and spinal meningitis. Martin would also get word about how the other camps were fairing, including the one his brother was in: “If Emory is at Camp Merritt he is good for ten days more at least.  The camp has a measles quarantine on. The head nurse told me about it.” Martin would eventually be hospitalized with mumps, saying that his “face is swelled up like a freshman’s chest.” Earlier, Martin had been hospitalized for rheumatism, and while there, he saw that not everyone who was hospitalized made it out:

“There has been lots of excitement here lately, two fellows had pneumonia with their scarlet. One goes out of his head. I was in bed all the time he was sick so didn’t see him. One night the [sic] brot [sic] over a straight jacket in case of emergency. They called out the reserves about four in the morning and about six of the fellows put the jacket on him, but didn’t tie him down. In the morning the trousers were on the floor. He told them that they got too hot so he took them off. Imagine that? The other fellow with pneumonia died, he just got in from Ft. Leavenworth when he was sent over here, had just three weeks in the army.”

Envelope from Martin to Mary

Envelope of letter Sent from Martin to Mary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin’s letters of being an engineer show a very different side of military life than what Emory experienced as a gunner. Once in France, Martin began to write more about what it was like for him to be a military man, and his related experiences are relatively pleasant, especially when compared to what his brother Emory was enduring at the front. One of Martin’s experiences that Emory notes with a little bitterness is that Martin has an easier time than him with the Engineers: “Got a letter from Mart today. He tells how he has a motorcycle to ride around with and French chefs to cook for them and women to wait table [sic]. Pretty soft I would say. We eat our beans sitting on mother earth and want to go to the front to get away from taking care of horses.” There may be some doubt as to how truthful Martin’s situation is, especially since Emory was at the front and in the trenches fighting in the French mud, but Martin’s letters home show that Emory isn’t that far off concerning Martin’s situation: “It is the swellest place in the world.  There are less than a hundred soldiers and a lot of laborers (civil). We aren’t getting our meals from the army but have french cooks using stuff that can be be bought and some from the QM. So the meals are great.” Most people don’t consider a base near the front lines to be “the swellest place on earth,” but Martin seemed to be enjoying himself, nonetheless.

Being in charge of taking care of the trucks, which were still a novelty at this time, Martin enjoyed local attention when the trucks were driven from one place to another: “We make a little sensation everywhere. When we pull through a little town the people all come out and collect the kids and chickens and animals out of the road.” His interactions with the townsfolk was limited by language, but he managed to still make do.  He drank a little since “wine and beer flows like water outside of the camp, but I haven’t found any that I care about yet so haven’t had any trouble finding my pass when I get back to camp.” He also would buy goods from local vendors but was aware that they would treat soldiers differently.  After he bought his sister a watch as a graduation present, he asked his mom to find out how much is was worth in American dollars: “I think it was worth all I paid for it because I got it in a good store, the better the store the less you have to be careful about being charged the ‘OD’ prices instead [of] french prices.”

censored letter from Martin to Mary

Censored letter from Martin to Mary

Despite all of the moments that were written in amusement, there are still reminders that a war was going on.  When Martin was writing to Mary about being in a French hospital, he writes a name of either an area or city, but it is censored thoroughly.  There is a section cut out and the name of the place is eradicated with no possibility of knowing where he was. Despite the somber reminder, it is humorous considering Martin’s next sentence is “I don’t know where that is.” Now, neither will we.

 

Martin’s letters show a different, more lighthearted side of working during the war.  Balancing the darker moments with humorous oversimplifications of common wartime occurrences, he makes for a unique conveyor of his experiences and what it was like for someone in France who was not necessarily fighting, but still a crucial part in the war effort.

By: Catharine Neely

Sources:

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 24 January 1918, Box FD, Folder 5, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 9 January 1918, Box FD, Folder 5, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 10 December 1917, Box FD, Folder 5, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 28 December 1917, Box FD, Folder 5, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 25 February 1918, Box FD, Folder 5, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 26 May 1918, Box FD, Folder 6, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 15 March 1918, Box FD, Folder 5, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Emory Crocker to Mary Crocker, 6 July 1918, Box FD, Folder 4, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 25 June 1918, Box FD, Folder 6, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

 Martin Crocker to Mary Crocker, 2 May 1918, Box FD, Folder 6, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

Martin Crocker to Mother, 12 May 1918, Box FD, Folder 6, Boutell Mary Crocker Papers, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

 

Mary Crocker Scrapbook, n. d., Scrapbook #244, Boutell Mary Crocker, collection UA 10.3.104, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.

1917 Wolverine, Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan.





American Archives Month 2016

3 10 2016

aam_2012-2

American Archives Month is celebrated every October to promote the value of archives and archivists.  The Michigan State University Archives & Historical Collections (UAHC) is responsible for collecting and preserving the historical records of the nation’s pioneer land-grant university.  In essence, the university archives is the memory of MSU.  Our collections contain documents, photographs, scrapbooks, diaries, and audio and visual recordings on a variety of topics, including athletics, student life, and Michigan history.  UAHC is a valuable resource for the MSU community, historians, publishers and producers, K-12 students, teachers, genealogists, and the general public.

UAHC is celebrating American Archives Month with several special events throughout October.

#AskanArchivist – October 5th

We’re kicking off American Archives Month with #AskanArchivist on Twitter.  This “day-long event, sponsored by the Society of American Archivists, will give you the opportunity to connect directly with archivists in your community — and around the country — to ask questions, get information, or just satisfy your curiosity.” [Read SAA’s full news release here].  If you have any questions for MSU’s archivists, simply tweet at @MSUArchives with the hashtag #AskAnArchivist.

MSU History presentation at CADL Mason – October 5th

Megan Badgley Malone, collections & outreach archivist, will take you through 160 years of MSU history in 60 minutes at the Mason branch of Capital Area District Libraries on Wednesday, October 5th from 6:30 to 7:30 pm.  Learn about the fascinating history of everyone’s favorite land grant university in this presentation featuring beautiful historic photographs from UAHC’s collections.  Registration is required. Call 517-676-9088 or register online.

1966 Game of the Century 50th Anniversary Celebration – October 12th

On October 12th, MSU Archives is hosting a 1966 Game of the Century 50th Anniversary Celebration.  The event will feature a discussion of the game by 1966 MSU Spartan football players, including Jimmy Raye, Clinton Jones, Regis Cavender, Bob Apisa, Jerry West, Sterling Armstrong, and defensive coordinator Hank Bullough, as well as George Goeddeke of Notre Dame (link: bios).  Sports radio broadcaster and author Jack Ebling will serve as moderator. Archival materials from our collections, including those related to the game, will be on display in the UAHC Reading Room.

Starting at 6:00 pm, Jimmy Raye and Tom Shanahan will be signing copies of Tom’s book Raye of Light.  Author David J. Young will also be available to sign copies of his book The Student and His Professor: John Hannah, Ralph Aigler, and the Origin of the Michigan State-Michigan Rivalry.  Light refreshments will be provided.

The 1966 Game of the Century 50th Anniversary Celebration will be held at Conrad Hall from 6:00 to 9:00 pm.  This event is free and open to the public.  We are asking people to RSVP so we can monitor the capacity of Conrad Hall. RSVP by calling 517-355-2330 or online 1966gotc.eventbrite.com.

gotc-event-flyer_revcg

This event is hosted by Michigan State University Archives & Historical Collections, with sponsorship provided by the Office for Inclusion & Intercultural Initiatives.

Genealogy Research in Archives at CADL South Lansing – October 15thnk5yb

UAHC cataloger Susan O’Brien will present an informative session on Genealogical Research in Archives at CADL’s South Lansing branch from 2:00 to 3:00 pm on Saturday, October 15th.  Learn techniques for researching your families’ history, and about UAHC’s collections.

7-1d-200-31-a002743The Civil War in Michigan at CADL Leslie – October 20th

On Thursday October 20, from 6:15pm to 7:15pm at the CADL Leslie branch, Ed Busch and Ryan Huey will discuss UAHC’s Civil War website and some of the most interesting collection highlights, including diaries, letters, and photographs from the American Civil War period.

Alumni LENS Coffee with the Profs – October 24th

Have you ever wondered where the Rock came from?  How did the idea of having a Sacred Space develop?  What’s the story behind the MSU fight song?  Take a trip through MSU’s rich history in this session presented by the University Archives & Historical Collections.  Hear fascinating facts about MSU history, campus traditions, and things every Spartan should know!  This presentation by archivist Megan Badgley Malone is hosted by MSU Alumni Association, and will be held at the Kellogg Center on Monday, October 24th from 10:00 to 11:30 am.  Registration to attend in person is available online.  There will be a livestream for those who are not able to attend – http://livestream.com/msualumni.

Twelve Twenty-Five book signing and talk – October 26th

KeefeCompF.indd

Image: MSU Press

On October 26th, MSU Press is presenting a lecture by Kevin P. Keefe at Conrad Hall to mark the release of his book Twelve Twenty-Five. The book chronicles the Pere Marquette 1225 train, which once resided at MSU and later became the inspiration for The Polar Express children’s book and movie.  We will host an open house of the MSU Archives as part of the event.  The event runs from 5:00 to 7:00 pm.  The author will be available for a book signing prior to the lecture.  Copies of the book will be available for purchase. R.S.V.P. online at PM1225.eventbrite.com.

The Civil War in Michigan at CADL Downtown Lansing – October 27th

To wrap up American Archives Month, Ed Busch and Ryan Huey will have a repeat performance of their Civil War in Michigan presentation at CADL’s Downtown Lansing branch.  It will be held on Thursday, October 27th from 7:00 to 8:00 pm.

Help us celebrate American Archives Month by joining us for some (or all!) of our fun events throughout October.

Written by Megan Badgley Malone, collections and outreach archivist





Greek Life at MSU

17 03 2014

Student groups and organizations have always been a part of the MSU’s history. Literary societies, activism groups and even squirrel watching clubs have shaped student life at the University since its beginning. MSU has also been home to one of the most iconic collegiate groups that has spurred on movies, books and television series, Greek Life.

Greek Life started at M.A.C in 1872 with the establishment of Delta Tau Delta. They were followed by Phi Delta Theta in 1873. However in 1896 the faculty banned national Greek organizations from forming at the College. Phi Delta Theta chose to be recognized as a local organization by changing their name to the Phi Delta Society. Due to the ban, many non-Greek societies began to form. The Union Literary Society, the Hesperian Literary Society and the Excelsior Society were among them.  In 1891 the first all-women’s group, the Feronian Society, was established. They were founded just five years before the creation of the Women’s Program in 1896. Academic and literary societies sought not only to have a forum for intelligent conversations, but also to plan and attend extravagant events and balls.

Members of the Phi Delta Society in the 1920 Wolverine Yearbook

Literary Societies also sought off campus housing, at the exclusivity of their members. However President Snyder was great proponent of the collegiate dormitory system and found this idea to be elitist and unnecessary. In 1905 the College did not have enough living spaces to accommodate all of its students. The faculty relented and allowed the Hesperian Society and the Colombian Society to buy its own meeting houses off campus.

 

The Trimoira Literary Society established at M.S.C in 1913

The 1920s gave way to an increase in students attending M.A.C and the lack of housing led faculty to allow off campus housing for more society members. In 1921 the ban on national Greek organizations was lifted and the first organizations to be established were the Alpha Gamma Delta and Alpha Phi Sororities. Alpha Phi was created by members of the Feronian Society.  Following them were the Forensic Society, who became Lambda Chi Alpha and the agriculturally based fraternity, Alpha Gamma Rho.

Members of Alpha Phi in 1925

Throughout the 1920s more and more literary societies became affiliated with national Greek organizations. The Aurorean Literary Society became Delta Sigma Phi Fraternity in 1923. Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity was forged from the Dorian Literary Society in 1924. In 1925 the Orphic Literary Society became Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity. From then on Greek life grew and became an integral part of MSU student life.

Competition has always been an important aspect of Greek Life. Chapters held Tug of War across the Red Cedar River, Chess Tournaments in local houses, as well as academic achievement contests throughout the school year. In 1930 Sigma Kappa Sorority won an exciting victory for overall best GPA on campus. They narrowly defeated the previous year’s winner, Alpha Chi Omega.

During the 1940s, World War II led to an overall decline in male enrollment at M.S.C. Fraternity houses were used to lodge coeds, due to a lack of women’s housing. Houses were also used by the Army and local R.O.T.C chapters. After the War, the G.I Bill allowed more and more students to attend college and Greek Life at M.S.C once again became a popular student activity.

In 1948 the first African American fraternity at the college was established by the brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha. They were committed to philanthropic service to all mankind and to the advancement of interracial groups at the college. The first African American sorority at M.S.C. was Alpha Kappa Alpha. They were established in 1954 and engaged in such as activities as reading to the blind and giving campus tours. Today MSU proudly hosts all nine historically African American Greek organizations on its campus.

Members of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity in the 1950s

In the 1950s Greek life continued to expand. In 1959 the count was up to 20 nationally recognized sororities and 34 fraternities. All of these organizations participated in campus wide events such as Spartacade, Greek Sing, Water Carnival, Greek Week and Homecoming festivities. One fall, the Kappa Sigma fraternity bought a World War II era plane from a local bar owner for $40. They set it up outside of their house so that it appeared to have crashed into the side of their house. They placed a dummy inside and splattered the whole thing in ketchup for dramatic effect. A sign beside it read “He rushed Kappa Sigma but didn’t quite make it!”

1957 photo of Winter Carnival Float created by Alpha Omicron Pi and Theta Chi

1951 outdoor homecoming display of William and Mary’s execution on the lawn of Phi Delta Theta.

Greek Life saw its decline in the 1970s. Campus dorm life became less restrictive and the traditions of fraternity and sorority members seemed to be out of date. Many chapters closed due to lack of membership; including Alpha Omicron Pi in 1972 (the chapter was re-established in 1989).

In more recent years Greek life at MSU has seen a steady increase with recruitment and rush numbers moving well into the thousands. In November of 2013, 141 years after the first fraternity established at MSU, the Panhellenic Council, Interfraternity Council, National Pan-Hellenic Council and Multicultural Greek Council became recognized by the University.

Photo courtesy of MSU GreekLife: Representatives from Panhellenic Council and Interfraterity Council pose with President Simon and others at the recognizing of Greek Life by the University.

Sources

Michigan State University Archives, “African American Presence at MSU; Historic Firsts.” Accessed March 12, 2014. http://archives.msu.edu/collections/african_presence_firsts.php.

Michigan State University Greek Life, “MSU Greek Life: History and Future.” Last modified January 01, 2014. Accessed March 14, 2014. http://www.msugreeklife.org/history-and-future.

The 1959 Wolverine Yearbook, Michigan State University.

Thomas, David A. Michigan State College: John Hannah and the Creation of a World University. 1926-1969. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2008.

Widder, Keith R. Michigan Agricultural College: The Evolution of a Land-Grant Philosophy, 1855-1925. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2005.

Written By Caroline Voisine